¿No das abasto con tus clases? Ficha a un bot para ayudarte

3 minutes

Hablábamos de los bots en un artículo anterior. Introducíamos el concepto, y señalaba a lo largo del artículo, que creo que van a dar mucho que hablar en muchos campos. Si abrís periódicos y medios especializados, seguramente os encontraréis con aplicaciones como: asistentes en procesos de compra online, atención al cliente, gestión de pagos y devoluciones, etc.

Sin embargo, la noticia de las últimas semana se ha producido en otro campo:

Un profesor usando un bot como ayudante (Fuente: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2016/05/11/this-professor-stunned-his-students-when-he-revealed-the-secret-identity-of-his-teaching-assistant/)
Un profesor usando un bot como ayudante (Fuente: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2016/05/11/this-professor-stunned-his-students-when-he-revealed-the-secret-identity-of-his-teaching-assistant/)

Ashok Goel, un profesor de ciencias de la computación de Georgia Tech, les contó a sus alumnos que había fichado a un profesor asistente (la figura del “Teching assistant“) llamado Jill Watson. Lo que no les dijo es que se trataba de un bot. Y, durante un semestre entero, esta pieza de software que había aprendido a aprender a responder “sobre la marcha” (los algoritmos de aprendizaje de los que hablábamos en el artículo anterior), se pasó respondiendo a las preguntas online de los estudiantes en el foro de la plataforma de aprendizaje de la universidad.

El bueno de Ashok Goel no les contó esta historia hasta después de la finalización de la asignatura. Los estudiantes, se quedaron perplejos. Habían dado un feedback realmente bueno al bot como profesor. De hecho, fue uno de los profesores del semestre mejor valorados. Y lo que no podían imaginar es que un software podía ofrecer un valor añadido tan alto como para ser indistinguible del comportamiento de un profesor en un foro online. ¿Se acuerdan del Test de Turing?

No se conocen muchos detalles técnicos del funcionamiento de este bot. Se sabe que ha sido desarrollado con la ayuda de algún ex-estudiante e IBM Watson. Se entiende que para dar respuestas y seguir aprendiendo a mejorar las respuestas que da, se apoyará en:

  • Los materiales didácticos del profesor.
  • Las notas del profesor tras la realización de las clases.
  • El conocimiento que tenga indexado en Internet (inmenso).
  • Otras respuestas que hubieran dado por respondida preguntas parecidas en Internet.
  • Respuestas en otros semestres de años anteriores de la misma asignatura para preguntas similares o idénticas.
  • etc.

Jill Watson fue entrenado para solo responder si tenía una confianza igual o superior al 97%. Es decir, generaba un conjunto finito de soluciones posibles ante una pregunta dada, y se quedaba con aquella de mayor peso, solo si tenía esa confianza. Esto garantizaba un nivel de calidad adecuado, que hemos visto que en los estudiantes no ha generado mayor problema.

En definitiva, estamos hablando de la automatización de una tarea que para los que nos dedicamos a la formación online, sabemos que tiene un valor incalculable: la tutoría online. Una labor, que no es responder, sino también acompañar, proponer temas, saber comunicarse con un código de comunicación apropiada para entornos online y sociales, etc. Una labor, donde los humanos, suelen tener problemas, porque es un elemento muy diferente a cómo se desempeña esta función en entornos presenciales.

El “engagement” con el estudiante se consigue normalmente con los encuentros presenciales. La motivación, con los múltiples instrumentos que empleamos los profesores en clase para mantener los ratios de atención. Estos dos elementos (engagement y motivación), siempre han sido un caballo de batalla en cursos online. Pero, los estudiantes que interactuaban y relacionaban con Jill el bot, se sintieron más motivados que nunca para preguntar.

El profesor Goel ya ha montado una empresa para tratar de escalar e industrializar esta idea de poder disponer de bots para una tarea tan humana hasta la fecha. A sabiendas que en un curso online de esa naturaleza se producen unas 10.000 preguntas, estamos hablando de una propuesta de valor sustancial para un profesor. Un ahorro importante de tiempo en una tarea cuya exigencia cognitiva es más baja que otras que desempeña el profesor, y que permite a un profesor centrarse en aquello que sí puede aportar verdaderamente valor (encontrar nuevas actividades, retos intelectuales para el estudiante, problemas, etc.)

A mí todo esto, más allá de la tónica general de entender lo que se está haciendo, creo que debe llevarnos a una situación de preguntarnos hasta dónde podemos llegar. Entiendo que en el debate de robots vs. humanos está más vivo que nunca. ¿El problema? Como he dicho en reiteradas ocasiones, que esta revolución digital está yendo a unos ritmos y velocidades sustantivamente mayores a los que estamos aprendiendo los humanos. Por ir a un extremo: ¿preferirá una universidad un profesor humano o un bot? Pues como ya ocurre en otras profesiones, todo dependerá del valor aportado, y también del coste. Me da la sensación que este debate que ya se tiene en otros sectores, llegará al nuestro también….

También hay varias voces que enfatizan que un robot nunca podrá llegar a disponer de las capacidades de un humano. Aluden a varias limitaciones que como pensadores tienen los robots, especialmente en aspectos como:

  1. Computers can calculate anything but understand nothing.
  2. Computers cannot truly create — only recombine what humans create.
  3. Computers are strictly rational. A human mind owes its richness largely to non-rational aspects.
  4. Computers have no insight. They are immune to “aha” moments.
  5. Computers cannot relate to human existence at levels we most cherish — love, beauty, truth.

Los bots, llegando a la educación. Ofreciendo resultados espectaculares. Momento de reflexionar también nosotros, los profesores universitarios. y centrarnos en aportar nuestro valor allí donde el humano todavía mantiene un monopolio: en la pregunta, en determinar qué es lo que hay que hacer. Hasta que un bot nos deje sin ese trabajo también…

Autor: alrayon

Lecturer and Researcher at Deusto University. Somehow, a stranger that loves both technology and economics, a sinergy that will conquer the world.

8 opiniones en “¿No das abasto con tus clases? Ficha a un bot para ayudarte”

  1. ?INTRODUCTION TO SYNTHESES
    (mostly from Cassie Carter – with her kind permission)
    CONTENTS What is definitely a synthesis? Two forms of syntheses Standards for synthesis essays How to jot down synthesis essays Techniques for developing synthesis essays Thesis statements, introductions, conclusions, and quotations WHAT May be a SYNTHESIS? A synthesis is actually a written discussion that draws on a particular or further resources. It follows that your ability to put in writing syntheses relies upon on your ability to infer relationships among resources – essays, articles, fiction, and also nonwritten resources, these as lectures, interviews, observations. This approach is nothing new for you, since you infer relationships all the time – say, relating to something you’ve look over inside newspaper and something you’ve seen for yourself, or involving the teaching styles of your favorite and least favorite instructors. In fact, if you’ve written research papers, you’ve presently written syntheses. In an academic synthesis, you make explicit the relationships that you choose to have inferred among separate resources.
    The skills you’ve currently been practicing in such a course will be vital in creating syntheses. Clearly, before you’re inside of a position to draw relationships somewhere between two or much more resources, you must understand what those resources say; in other words, you must be able to summarize these resources. It will frequently be helpful for your personal readers if you should furnish at least partial summaries of resources in your own synthesis essays. For the same time, you must go beyond summary to make judgments – judgments dependent, of course, on your critical reading of your resources – as you have practiced in the reading responses and in class discussions. You should now have drawn some conclusions about the good quality and validity of these resources; and you should know how a good deal you agree or disagree with the points made in your own resources and also the reasons for ones agreement or disagreement.
    Further, you must go beyond the critique of individual resources to determine the relationship among them. Is the particulars in source B, for example, an extended illustration on the generalizations in source A? Would it be useful to compare and contrast source C with source B? Having look at and considered resources A, B, and C, can you infer something else – D (not a source, but your private idea)?
    Simply because a synthesis is dependant upon two or even more resources, you will really want to be selective when choosing knowledge from each individual. It would be neither feasible nor desirable, for instance, to discuss within a ten-page paper to the battle of Wounded Knee every point that the authors of two books make about their subject. What you as a writer must do is select the ideas and material from each individual source that most popular make it easy for you to definitely acquire your purpose.
    PURPOSE Your purpose in reading source materials and then in drawing upon them to jot down your unique material is often reflected around the wording of an assignment. For example, your assignment may ask which you evaluate a textual content, argue a position with a topic, explain cause and effect relationships, or compare and contrast items. Despite the fact that you may perhaps make use of the same resources in crafting an argumentative essay as your classmate takes advantage of in creating a comparison/contrast essay, you will make different works by using of those resources dependant on the different purposes from the assignments. What you get a hold of worthy of detailed analysis in Source A may be mentioned only in passing by your classmate.
    Utilizing YOUR Resources Your purpose determines not only what parts of your resources you will use but also how you will relate them to an individual another. Since the very essence of synthesis is the combining of tips and ideas, you must have some basis on which to combine them. Some relationships among the material in you resources must make them worth sythesizing. It follows that the more beneficial able that you’re to discover this sort of relationships, the more desirable able you will be to work with your resources in crafting syntheses. Your purpose in creating (influenced by your assignment) will determine how you relate your source materials to a single another. Your purpose in creating determines which resources you use, which parts of these you use, at which points as part of your essay you use them, and in what manner you relate them to an individual another.
    TWO Forms OF SYNTHESES
    THE EXPLANATORY SYNTHESIS: An explanatory synthesis helps readers to understand a topic. Writers explain when they divide a subject into its component parts and existing them to the reader in a very clear and orderly fashion. Explanations may entail descriptions that re-create in words some object, area, event, sequence of events, or state of affairs. The purpose in crafting an explanatory essay is not really to argue a particular point, but rather to existing the facts in the reasonably aim manner. The explanatory synthesis does not go significantly beyond what is obvious from the careful reading belonging to the resources. You will not be producing explanatory synthesis essays with this course. However, at times your argumentative synthesis essays will include sections that are explanatory in nature.
    THE ARGUMENT SYNTHESIS: The purpose of an argument synthesis is for you to definitely current your personal point of see – supported, of course, by relevant facts, drawn from resources, and presented in a very sensible manner. The thesis of an argumentative essay is debatable. It makes a proposition about which reasonable people could disagree, and any two writers working with the same source materials could conceive of and service other, opposite theses.
    STANDARDS FOR SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
    1. Remember you are working with your resources to help your ideas and promises, not one other way available.
    two. Keep in mind that original thought and insightful analysis are required for a four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 paper; two.5 and below evaluations tend not to current original ideas.
    3. A four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 paper will formulate a "dialogue" somewhere between the essay author’s ideas and her resources, and also among the resources themselves. two.5 and below evaluations will often summarize one particular point in a time, with the essay author’s idea stated with the finish. If you happen to imagine a synthesis essay as a room in which the synthesis writer is joined by the authors of her/his resources, the four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 essay has every body engaged in conversation or discussion, with almost everyone commenting on (or arguing against) every single other’s ideas directly. With the two.5 and below essay, each and every person while in the room stands up in turn, gives a speech, and sits down, with very little or no question and answer period between or afterward.
    four. Take special care to address your audience in an acceptable manner. Make sure you establish your credibility relating to the subject which you supply sufficient tips to make your argument (thesis) convincing.
    5. Organize your paper logically: A. State your thesis clearly and make sure that it reflects the focus of your essay. B. Make sure your main points are clearly stated (use topic sentences), and connect just about every point to your thesis as explicitly as plausible. C. Divide paragraphs logically. D. Supply applicable transitions both equally inside and concerning paragraphs. 6. Cultivate just about every main idea thoroughly. Use unique examples and source materials appropriately as service. Be sure to integrate source materials smoothly into your possess producing choosing attribution phrases and transitions. Also be sure to avoid unnecessary repetition (repetition is often an organization problem).
    7. Select words precisely. When in doubt, utilize a dictionary!
    8. Make sure sentences are clear and unambiguous. Avoid passive voice. Double-check to see that sentences are adequately varied in duration and style, which there are no fragments or run-ons. Also proofread carefully to correct any other sentence errors.
    9. Proofread carefully to identify and correct mechanical errors, like as errors in plurals or possessives, subject-verb agreement, shifts in verb tense or person ("you"), comma errors, spelling errors, and so on.
    ten. Quadruple check your MLA documentation. Are your parenthetical citations correct? Is your Will work Cited list correct according to MLA style, and does it include all resources cited in your own essay?
    eleven. Be sure to give your essay a descriptive and attention-getting title (NOT "Synthesis," for goodness sake. ).
    12. Make sure your essay is formatted correctly and posted to your internet page correctly.
    HOW To write down SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
    Consider your purpose in crafting. Check out the topic assignment carefully. What are you trying to accomplish as part of your essay? How will this purpose shape the way you method your resources?
    Select and carefully look over your resources, according to your purpose. Re-read the resources, mentally summarizing each individual. Identify those aspects or parts of your resources that will help you in fulfilling your purpose. When rereading, label or underline the passages for main ideas, key terms, and any details you ought to use inside the synthesis.
    Formulate a thesis. Your thesis is the main idea that you simply like to current in the synthesis. It must be expressed as a finish sentence and include a statement in the topic and your assertion about that topic. Every so often the thesis is the 1st sentence, but a good deal more often it is the final sentence on the to begin with paragraph.
    Decide how you will use your source material and take notes. How will the info additionally, the ideas in the resources help you to definitely fulfill your purpose? Re-read your resources and generate down the content from your resources that will recommended build and assist your thesis.
    Establish and organizational plan, according to your thesis. (See Techniques for Developing Synthesis Essays immediately below.) How will you arrange your material? It just isn’t necessary to prepare a formal outline, but you should have some plan in mind that will indicate the order in which you will current your material which will indicate the relationships among your resources.
    Be able to write the first of all draft of your synthesis, following your organizational plan. Be versatile with your plan, however, and permit yourself room to incorporate new ideas you discover as you create. As you discover and incorporate new ideas, re-read your do the job frequently to ensure that your thesis continue to accounts for what follows which what follows nevertheless logically supports your thesis.
    Document your resources. Use MLA-style in-text citations together with a Operates Cited list to credit your resources for all material you quote, paraphrase, or summarize. For example, if I wanted to note in my essay the difference relating to name-calling and argumentum ad hominem as personal types of attack, I would credit the article on "Politics: The Art of Bamboozling" from WARAC by offering a citation that consists of the author’s last name as well as the exact webpage quantity where she discussed this notion (Cross 302). With the stop on the essay, I would have a entire bibliographic citation with the "Politics" article.
    Revise your synthesis. Insert transitional words and phrases where necessary. Integrate all quotations so they flow smoothly inside your very own sentences. Use attribution phrases to distinguish among your sources’ ideas and your have ideas. Make sure the essay reads smoothly, logically, and clearly from beginning to conclude. Check for grammatical correctness, punctuation, and spelling.
    TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
    SUMMARY: The simplest – and least sophisticated – way of organizing a synthesis essay is to summarize your most relevant resources, a particular after one other, but generally with just about the most important source(s) last. The problem with this method is always that it reveals minor or no independent thought on your part. Its main virtue is the fact that it at least grounds your paper in relevant and targeted evidence.
    Summary could very well be useful – and sophisticated – if handled judiciously, selectively, and in blend with other techniques. At some time you may have to have to summarize a crucial source in some detail. At another point, you may would like to summarize a key section or paragraph of the source inside of a solitary sentence. Try to anticipate what your reader needs to know at any given point of your paper in order to comprehend or appreciate fully the point you could be making.
    EXAMPLE OR ILLUSTRATION: At a person or a whole lot more points with your paper, you may desire to refer to your particularly illuminating example or illustration from your source material. You could paraphrase this example (i.e. recount it, in some detail, as part of your personal words), summarize it, or quote it directly from your source. In all these cases, of course, you would properly credit your source.
    TWO (OR Increased) REASONS: The "two reasons" procedure can certainly be an extremely effective method of progress. You simply state your thesis, then offer reasons why the statement is true, supported by evidence from your resources. You could potentially advance as a lot reasons for your truth of your thesis as needed; but save some of the most important reason(s) for last, when you consider that the finish within the paper is what will remain most clearly inside reader’s mind.
    STRAWMAN: After you utilize the strawman technique, you existing an argument against your thesis, but immediately afterward you present that this argument is weak or flawed. The advantage of this technique tends to be that you demonstrate your awareness on the other side belonging to the argument and display you are prepared to answer it. The strawman argument number one presents an introduction and thesis, then the main opposing argument, a refutation on the opposing argument, and finally a positive argument.
    CONCESSION: Like the strawman, the concession technique presents the opposing viewpoint, but it surely does not proceed to demolish the opposition. Instead, it concedes that the opposition has a valid point but that, even so, the positive argument is the stronger 1. This method is particularly valuable in the event you know your reader holds the opposing watch.
    COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: Comparison and contrast techniques allow you to definitely examine two subjects (or resources) in terms of a single another. In case you compare, you consider similarities. Should you contrast, you consider differences. By comparing and contrasting, you perform a multifaceted analysis that often suggests subtleties that otherwise would possibly not have come to your attention.
    To organize a comparison/contrast analysis, you must carefully read through resources in order to discover significant criteria for analysis. A criterion can be a specified point to which the two of your authors refer and about which they may agree or disagree. The most suitable criteria are those that let you not only to account for obvious similarities and differences involving resources but also to plumb deeper, to extra subtle and significant similarities and differences. There are two primary formulas for comparison/contrast analysis:

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